Upanishads and Vedanta

Upanishads and Vedanta

There are about 1. Hinduism is the only major religion of the world that can neither be traced to a specific founder nor has a holy book as the one and only scriptural authority. Hinduism is one of the oldest extant religions with its roots extending back to prehistoric times. The rituals and the religious practices of the Indus Valley Civilization gifted a number of holy books to the world including, the Bhagwad Gita, the Mahabharata, the Ramayana, the Vedas, the Upanishads and the Puranas. The three main manifestations of the omnipresent God are: Brahma, the creator of the universe, Vishnu the protector and Shiva the destroyer. Wars between the Asuras demons and the Devas Gods are a common part of the Hindu mythology.


When I was researching on the timing of Ramayana and was stuck in my search for a specific year for any of the key Ramayana instances — e. I spent some time reading through other ancient Indian literature, specifically looking for astronomy references. I collected good number of them I have already written on Vishnu Purana, Shatapatha Brahmana and spent some time dating them. I wrote the following note but never thought much about it since I did not know much about this Upanishad Maitri or Maitrayani and thus kept aside, until today!

So 60 more pages to go! We will perform our simulations by identification of Yogatara as follows:.

See more ideas about Upanishads, Spiritual quotes, Vedanta. Keep up to date with the latest practical spiritual life articles on the Light of the Spirit Blog.

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Melvyn Bragg and his guests discuss the Upanishads, the sacred texts of Hinduism. Dating from about BC, their mystical and philosophical nature still resonates today. Melvyn Bragg and his guests discuss the Upanishads, the ancient sacred texts of Hinduism. Dating from about BC, the Upanishads were passed down through an oral tradition in priestly castes and were not written down until the 6th century AD. They constitute the final part of the Vedas, the collection of texts which form the foundation of the Indian Hindu world, and were originally spoken during sacrificial rituals.

Yet the Upanishads go beyond incantations performed during sacrifices, and ask profound questions about human existence and man’s place in the cosmos.

Its traditional date goes back to BC, something which the German scholar Max Mueller accepted. As a body of writing, the Rig-Veda (the wisdom of verses) is.

Vedanta has been interpreted as the “last chapters, parts of the Veda ” and alternatively as “object, the highest purpose of the Veda”. Around Upanishads are known, of which the first dozen or so are the oldest and most important and are referred to as the principal or main mukhya Upanishads. The early Upanishads all predate the Common Era, five [note 6] of them are in all likelihood pre-Buddhist 6th century BCE , [21] stretching down to the Maurya period , which lasted from to BCE.

With the translation of the Upanishads in the early 19th century they also started to attract attention from a Western audience. Arthur Schopenhauer was deeply impressed by the Upanishads and called it “the most profitable and elevating reading which Gurumukh [32] Other dictionary meanings include “esoteric doctrine” and “secret doctrine”. Monier-Williams ‘ Sanskrit Dictionary notes — “According to native authorities, Upanishad means setting to rest ignorance by revealing the knowledge of the supreme spirit.

The word appears in the verses of many Upanishads, such as the fourth verse of the 13th volume in first chapter of the Chandogya Upanishad. The authorship of most Upanishads is uncertain and unknown. Radhakrishnan states, “almost all the early literature of India was anonymous, we do not know the names of the authors of the Upanishads”. The various philosophical theories in the early Upanishads have been attributed to famous sages such as Yajnavalkya , Uddalaka Aruni , Shvetaketu , Shandilya , Aitareya, Balaki, Pippalada , and Sanatkumara.

The Shvetashvatara Upanishad , for example, includes closing credits to sage Shvetashvatara , and he is considered the author of the Upanishad. Many scholars believe that early Upanishads were interpolated [47] and expanded over time.

Paingala Upanishad of Shukla-Yajurveda

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Great Article Sir Many Brahmins who used to transmit and record geneologies orally were also killed. There are some gaps in Indian history that possibly may not ever be filled. I have been reading some posts, now im looking forward to get some of your books. Elst what do you have to say about the Arundhati observation given in Mahabharata? If so how come Yagnavalkya could have composed the Shulka Yajurveda before the Mahabharata events and The Brihadaranyaka Upanishad after those evevts?.

We would have to then believe that he lived during the same time if so how come Mahabharatta does not mention him as a contemporary?. I think there might be a passage in the Ramayana in which Ram and Hanuman are discussing the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad. Shravan: I have only affirmed that the Brhadaranyaka Upanishad must al least be years older than usually assumed.

Further narrowi,g down should be aimed at, and will requirz sime work. In this particular case, we do not dispose of astronomical data to my knowledge , and scriptural references have their own problems. Thus, the editorial history of the epics is based on a fairly accurate eyewitness testimony, but then keeps piling on this centuries worth of data pertaining to other events.

It would indeed already be something it wz could establish the chronological relation between the Bharata battle and the older Upanishads.

Timeline of Hindu texts

The earliest extant Upanishads date roughly from the middle of the 1st millennium bce. Indeed, the material they contain would not be considered philosophical in the modern, academic sense. For example, the Upanishads describe rites or performances designed to grant power or to obtain a particular kind of son or daughter. One Upanishadic concept had tremendous impact on subsequent Indian thought.

Oct 10, – Explore Harbour view Restaurant’s board “Upanishads”, Related image Quotes, People, Image, Qoutes, Dating, Quotations, People Illustration.

Melvyn Bragg and guests discuss the bonds that Scottish Presbyterians made between themselves and their monarchs in the 16th and 17th Centuries, to maintain their form of worship. These covenants bound James VI of Scotland to support Presbyterians yet when he became James I he was also expected to support episcopacy. That tension came to a head under Charles I who found himself on the losing side of a war with the Covenanters, who later supported Parliament before backing the future Charles II after he had pledged to support them.

Once in power, Charles II failed to deliver the religious settlement the Covenanters wanted, and set about repressing them violently. Those who refused to renounce the covenants were persecuted in what became known as The Killing Times, as reflected in the image above. Melvyn Bragg and guests discuss the ideas developed by the Anglican priest John Nelson Darby , drawn from his reading of scripture, in which Jesus would suddenly take His believers up into the air, and those left behind would suffer on Earth until He returned with His church to rule for a thousand years before Final Judgement.

Some believers would look for signs that civilization was declining, such as wars and natural disasters, or for new Roman Empires that would harbour the Antichrist, and from these predict the time of the Rapture. Darby helped establish the Plymouth Brethren, and later his ideas were picked up in the Scofield Reference Bible and soon became influential, particularly in the USA.

A Very Brief History of Yoga

Her introduction sheds light on many aspects of the Upanishads. While discussing the dates of the Upanishads and giving a chronological listing of some Upanishads, Cohen does not cite any authority for the basis of this dating. Also, she does not explain why she prefers to date the Upanishads much later than the widely-accepted date of the oldest Veda, the Rigveda. She places the Upanishads after the Zend-Avesta, which was authored much later than the Rigveda.

However, there has been considerable debate among authorities about the exact dating of individual Upanishads. The Upanishads were collectively considered.

They are also called Vedanta, the end of Vedas. In purest sense, they are not Sruti of heard. Upanishads expain the essence of vedas. The Upanishads are found mostly the concluding part of the Brahmanas and in the Aranyakas. More than are known, of which the first dozen or so, the oldest and most important, are variously referred to as the principal, main mukhya or old Upanishads. With the Bhagavad Gita and the Brahmasutra known collectively as the Prasthanatrayi , [2] the mukhya Upanishads provide a foundation for several later schools of Indian philosophy vedanta , among them, two influential monistic schools of Hinduism.

Historians believe the chief Upanishads were composed over a wide period ranging from the Pre-Buddhist period [6] [7] to the early centuries BC [7] though minor Upanishads were still being composed in the medieval and early modern period. Other dictionary meanings include “esoteric doctrine” and “secret doctrine”. Modern scholars recognize the first 10, 11, 12 or 13 Upanishads as principal or Mukhya Upanishads and the remainder as derived from this ancient canon.

If a Upanishad has been commented upon or quoted by revered thinkers like Shankara , it is a Mukhya Upanishad , [1] accepted as shruti by most Hindus. Another way of classifying the Upanishads is to associate them with the respective Brahmanas. The Mukhya Upanishads can themselves be stratified into periods.

The Upanishads

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Not only in the Vedas, but in later scriptures such as the Upanishads, the No community carried the value of renunciation further than the Jains (dating from.

By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie Policy , Privacy Policy , and our Terms of Service. Hinduism Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for followers of the Hindu religion and those interested in learning more about Hinduism. It only takes a minute to sign up. Klaus K. Klostermaier’s A Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism has the following traditional dates for Hindu scriptures starting with the Vedas.

The chronology of Ancient India up to the time of Buddha is at present the focus of fierce scholarly debates.

Veda, Upanishads and Puranas

The Upanishads were composed over several centuries. The philosophical edifice of Indian religion viz. The term thus emphasizes the esoteric nature of the texts, not intended for public teaching, but restricted to the confidentiality of personal instruction. The Upanishads were transmitted orally by the Vedic schools sakhas.

Each of the early Upanishads is part of the Vedas. Scholars think the Brihad-​Aranyaka and the Chandogya are the oldest, pre-dating Buddhism by several.

The oldest descriptions of yoga in practical terms can be found in the Upanishads. They talk about focusing inward, revealing knowledge of an underlying oneness pervading all things. This is often why yoga is said to mean union. The word “upanishad” refers to connections, particularly those that are hidden in plain sight. Our book club will bring these to light, and share ideas about how they relate to modern yoga. A handout is provided each week with some guidelines for reading.

You can access the first one here to prepare for the book club. I recommend the translation by Patrick Olivelle, available in paperback from Oxford World’s Classics.

Vedas and Upanishads

The authorship of most Upanishads is uncertain and unknown. Radhakrishnan states, “almost all the early literature of India was anonymous, we do not know the names of the authors of the Upanishads”. The various philosophical theories in the early Upanishads have been attributed to famous sages such as Yajnavalkya, Uddalaka Aruni, Shvetaketu, Shandilya, Aitareya, Balaki, Pippalada, and Sanatkumara.

The Shvetashvatara Upanishad, for example, includes closing credits to sage Shvetashvatara , and he is considered the author of the Upanishad. Many scholars believe that early Upanishads were interpolated[47] and expanded over time.

The Upanishads are ancient scriptures which form the final part of the Vedas. dating from c B.C. There are four Vedas: the Rig Veda, Sama Veda.

This course provides a broad understanding of the Vedas and the Upanishads and the beliefs and practices they advocate. The Vedas and the Upanishads are truly vast and there are few if any who can claim to have full knowledge of them. Hence, what we do here is present a broad outline of the principal themes and then perform a more detailed study of selected passages. This course is an introduction to the religious teachings of the Vedas Veda Samhitas and the Upanishads.

We move from broad understandings to specific passages. We begin with a look at the Vedas, particularly the hymns of the Rig Veda and the Gods they glorify. In the Vedas the sages reveal the sacred words they had heard or realised, not their own teachings. Therefore the Veda is also known as apaurusheya, or not the work of any person. Of these, the Atharva held a lesser status and so we sometimes find references to three Vedas only. What was its wrapping? In whose protection?

Was Water there, unfathomable and deep?


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